Lesson 19: Cloud Infrastructure

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What the Cloud Looks Like

[...] a model for enabling ubiquitous, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources.
A series of Cloud Platform logos

The Cloud is a vague term which more or less means “Computing resources somewhere else”. This can be remote digital storage, a virtual machine you log into from your laptop, a place to chat with friends, or a database someone else hosts. Either way its many tools acting together in a complicated ecosystem of machines, web APIs, operating systems, and hosting providers.

The software which powers The Cloud is vast, but a few of the big names are Amazon AWS, Windows Azure, CoreOS Tectonic, and Openstack. Some of these are cheap, fast, new, old, but each offer it’s own set of advantages.

Advantages over Bare Hardware

In the Stone Ages you used to buy a computer, install an OS on it, give it an IP address, and then you had a website. This worked for some people, and small projects, but it doesn’t scale well.

Let’s propose a hypothetical: You are Netflix. You have times when lots of people are watching your shows, and other times when very few people are watching shows. You somehow need to be able to have enough servers for lots of people to watch, but you don’t want to waste resources when nobody is watching. The solution? Use the cloud!

Netflix uses AWS, a cloud provider, to add and remove servers from its clusters as they’re needed. This means they pay a lot of money on Saturday night when people are inside watching Stranger Things, and they pay very little Wednesday morning when people are at work.

The reasons you would use the cloud is because you need something that either needs to scale fast, be cost effective, or will only exist for a short period of time.

TLDR: Here is why you’d want to use The Cloud:

  • Ephemeral: Creating and Destroying operating systems is quick and painless.
  • Cost effective: Pay for what you use.
  • Low startup cost: Initial investment is cheap, <$100 as opposed to >$1,000+. (unless you are running a private cloud, more on that in a second).

Private Clouds

Private clouds are software which you run on your own servers. They give you the advantages of cloud flexiblity while giving you the control over the machines you run.

This requires a higher startup cost, requiring the purchase of machines and time to install the cloud software, but then you don’t have to worry about your cloud usage being restricted during peak hours.

Public Clouds

Public clouds are services you subscribe to which allow you to run and rent server-space on somebody else’s cloud. This is cheap and easy to work with, but may be restricted during times of heavy use.

Cloud + Configuration Management

Configuration Management is a very useful tool in using the Cloud as a developer. Being able to spin up hundreds of machines isn’t useful if you have to manually set each one up to run your application. Many companies use some form of configuration management to provision their cloud-based boxes automatically.

Cattle VS Pets

This is where the metaphors of Cattle vs Pets (from Lesson 17: Configuration Management) makes more sense. As we mentioned, servers ought to be treated like Cattle. With a cloud resource provdier a limitless number cattle can be spun up and destroyed. Without The Cloud you can probably get away with treating your severs like pets.