Lesson 8: Version Control

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Text Editor: Nano

We are going to with a a quick tangent by learning to use the terminal-based text editor Nano.

nano in action
  • User types like normal.
  • Arrow keys used to to navigate the cursor.
  • ^ + <key> Commands (control + key)

Nano is a great terminal text editor to start with. Later in your career you may start using emacs or vi/vim but to start with nano is familiar, easy to use, and gets the job done.

To use nano simply execute it like any other command in the terminal.

$ nano  # Open with empty file
$ nano <file_name>  # Edit a specific file

This editor is almost exactly like any word processor or plain-text editor except that you don’t have a mouse – only keyboard shortcuts. The instruction bar at the bottom of the screen is explains all of the key-bindings from saving, to exiting, to cut and pasting.

Version Control Systems

VCS is how one tracks changes, modifications, and updates to source files over time. Creating a history of changes for a project over time.

Used for:
  • Documentation
  • Code
  • Configuration
  • Collaboration
Other Names Include:
  • Source Control Management (SCM)
  • Version Control Software
  • Revision Control Software

What VCS Solves

PHD Comics 'Final Draft'.
Version control solves a lot of problems:
  • I have changes I want to integrate (merge) into the main project.
  • I want to track the state of this project over time.
  • I want to make some changes without possibly breaking what I have.
  • ... and much more.

Most VCS software does this by storing metadata about a project, specifically differences (diffs) between between points in history.

VCS is a broad and complicated topic. It might not come easy to you, but experience will help.

Principles of VCS

Below is a list of concepts / vocabulary you’ll encounter when working with VCS. Some systems use slightly different verbage to describe these ideas but you can get by with these words.


Your project.

“I created a new repository (repo) for my school project so we can collaborate more easily.”


The delta (additions and deletions) between two states of a project.

“The diff between draft one and two was very long thank’s to the help of the skilled editor.”


A snapshot of your project’s state at a point in history. Records the difference between two points in history with a diff.

“Your last commit modified two methods and introduced a bug somewhere.”


Modifications to a project (main branch = trunk) made in parallel with the a main branch, but not affecting the main branch.

“My branch introduces some changes which might break production so I’m not going to merge it until it’s well tested.”


Introducing changes from one branch into another.

“I merged three commits into the Master branch so we can have those features in the next release.”

Downloading a local copy of a project.
Your own version of somebody else’s project where you take the original code-base and make modifications. May include many changes or just a few bug-fixes. Sometimes you end up merging those changes back upstream.

Types of VCS

There are two main types of VCS: distrubted and centralized. They each have their pros and cons.

Centralized VCS

“I’m going to work at the designated work-bench. Nobody else can work on this until I’m done.”

Centralized Version Control Systems require a persistent connection with a centralized server.

Examples include:
  • Subversion
  • CVS
Distributed VCS

“I’m going to work over here for a while and tell you about what I did later.”

Distributed version control systems are those in which each person working on a project downloads a local copy of the project, makes their changes, and manually fetches changes from other copies.

Examples include:
  • Git
  • Mercurial


Git is a Free and Open Source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. ( https://git-scm.com )
Git logo

Git has become the defacto VCS tools used by new Open Source projects. It is supported on platforms including Github, Bitbucket, and Gitlab and is used by projects like the Linux Kernel, the Go langauge, and of course Git itself.

It is not the only VCS out there. Your future job may require you to use a different tool for VCS. Thankfully the principles of SCM are very similar everywhere you go, so pay attention! There’s a lot to learn here and it’s not all about the commands you should type.

Setting up Git

Before using Git we need to make sure we have it configured. We will do this by telling Git what our name, email, and preferred text editor is.

$ sudo yum install git
$ git config --global user.name "My Name"
$ git config --global user.email "myself@gmail.com"
$ git config --global core.editor "nano"

TODO: Use Git Locally

First we will create a repo. In Git a repo is just a directory that we have run git init inside of.

Create a project with Git:

$ mkdir my-project
$ cd my-project    # Always run `git init` inside of a project folder!
$ git init         # Never inside of your home directory.

Next we are going to add a file to our project. This is as easy as creating it, staging it (git add <filename>) and committing it.

Add and commit a file to your project with Git:

$ touch newfile.txt
$ git add newfile.txt
$ git commit  # Edit message in Nano, save the file, exit to commit.

To see which files are staged, unstaged, or untracked:

$ git status

To look through your repository history:

$ git log

To create and checkout a branch:

$ git branch    # Shows your branches and current branch
* master
$ git checkout -b <new-branch>  # Switches to new branch `<branch name>`
$ git branch
* new-branch
$ git checkout master   # Switches to existing branch `<branch name>`

TODO: Working With a Git Repository

  • Checkout a new feature branch on your repository.
$ git checkout -b <new_feature_name>
  • Create/Edit files on the new branch.
$ echo "Some awesome text" > awesomefile.txt
$ git status
On branch <new_feature_name>
Untracked files:
  (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)


nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)
$ git add awesomefile.txt
$ git commit -m "short awesome feature commit message"
  • Create a diff between the two.
$ git diff master
diff --git a/awesomefile.txt b/awesomefile.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..08cec7f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/awesomefile.txt
@@ -0,0 +1 @@
+Some awesome text
  • Locally merge the changes from your new branch into Master.
$ git merge my-awesome-feature
Updating 459de26..5c4ca48
awesomefile.txt | 1 +
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)
create mode 100644 awesomefile.txt

What not to do with Git

Do not delete the .git directory.
The .git directory is the file which contains your entire Git repository. All history and metadata about your repo is kept in that folder, deleting it deletes your project except for the code you have right now.
Do not change history.

You will eventually learn some commands to modify history (change commit messages or changes in a commit). You can do this but you should only do it with caution and only when you fully understand what you’re doing. It has the potential to ruin other people’s day.

Well – don’t change history with the exception of the next two points...

Do not make redundant commits or revert commits.
After making a commit, use git commit --amend if you want to make changes to avoid cluttering your history with Oops, changing that messages.
Don’t wait too long between commits.
Commits are cheap and you can never make too many. If you wait too long you might as well not use it! Once you’re done with a feature you can squash many commits into one.
Avoid redundant copies of the same work.
If you want to make changes to something, but also want to keep the original, make a branch! There are very few cases where making a copy of something in the same repository is the best thing to do.
Don’t commit secrets. They never go away.
Ars Technica wrote about the topic, check it out: http://arstechnica.com/security/2013/01/psa-dont-upload-your-important-passwords-to-github/


Everybody uses VCS differently. Choose the workflow that works best for everybody involved.

git-flow diagram

Unfortunately we can’t really perscribe a best Git workflow. There are definitely better workflows out there, but you should do what works for you, and when you join a project explicitly ask what their workflow is so you can stay on the same page as your peers.

Centralizing Git

While Git is distributed it can be made more centralized by pushing and pulling with a common remote repository. Tools for centralizing Git include:

Open Source, free to run, feature rich.
Very popular. Not Open Source but free for Open Source projects.
Also popular, similar to Github, unlimited free private and public repositories.
Bare-bones. Fewer feature than the previous three. Open Source, useful for learning the nitty-gritty Git really works.

Each of these services is either free to use, or Open Source (so you can setup and run it yourself).

Cloning a Repository

To contribute to someone else’s repository you first need to clone the repo.

$ cd /path/to/my/projects
$ git clone <some git url>
$ cd <new repo directory>
$ ls

Once you clone a repository you can make as many local changes as you want without affecting the original (central) copy. You can experiment and work without the original owner even knowing what you’re doing.

If you’ve made changes you think the original owner should have each of the previously mentioned centralizing services has a way for you to request that your changes be merged in with theirs.

TODO: Cloning Exercise

In this exercise we will clone an application and run it in our remote GNU/Linux box.

First, clone the tinsy-flask-app repository from the DevOpsBootcamp organization on Github.

$ git clone https://github.com/DevOpsBootcamp/tinsy-flask-app.git

See http://git.io/vcVmB for more details about the tinsy-flask-app repository.

After cloning we need to setup the project. This is similar to building an application from source because we downloaded the source code and want to run it!

Most repositories include a file called README which includes instructions on how to setup and run the code included in the repo. Those instructions tell us to run the following commads.

$ cd tiny-flask-app
$ virtualenv venv
$ pip install -r requirements.txt
$ python script.py


You may need to install the python, virtualenv, and pip packages. How would you do that?

Now if you go to <your ip address>:<http port> in your web-browser to see a live version of the app!

Further Reading

The Online Git Docs
This is a portal to all of the official docs on git-scm.com. It includes everything from Getting Started to Git Internals. Check it out!
Git workflow tutorial
This is the tutorial provided on https://git-scm.com/about/distributed. It is a good high-level overview of some common git workflows.
A successful Git branching model
This blogpost describes a git workflow (git-flow) that the Open Source Lab bases their workflow on.